However, the United States has filled some of these gaps through complementary preferential programs such as the African Growth and Opportunity Act, and a recent program for Haiti and Europe did the same with Everything But Arms. The EU GSP removes import duties on products imported into the EU market from vulnerable developing countries. This will help developing countries reduce poverty and create jobs based on international values and principles, including labour and human rights. Between 2011 and 2017, EU imports from beneficiary countries increased by 44%. In the EBA countries, their exports to the EU increased by 125% and GSP+ beneficiaries by 82%. From the point of view of developing countries as a group, the GSP programmes have been a mixed success.  Beneficiary countries should communicate to the preferential countries, either directly or through the UNCTAD secretariat, the names and addresses of the governmental authorities issuing the GSP Certificate of Origin Form A, as well as specimens of the stamps used by those authorities. The idea of tariff preferences for developing countries was widely discussed at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in the 1960s. Among other things, developing countries have asserted that the most-favoured-nation has a deterrent effect for richer countries to reduce and eliminate tariffs and other trade restrictions quickly enough to benefit developing countries. As announced in Trade for All, the EU has stepped up its engagement in three GSP beneficiary countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia and Myanmar.
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